## I have measured the power (W) to higher than what is specified for the lamp? The specified current (mA) does not match the specified power (W) for the 230V lamp?

For AC products, a distinction is made between active power (W) and apparent power (VA). The active effect is the real effect that a product consumes and the part we pay the electricity company for. Apparent power is simply the product of peak voltage and peak current.

A simpler multimeter or power meter can usually only measure apparent power. This works well as long as you measure e.g. a light bulb, because the active and apparent effect are actually equal in these cases. But for LED lamps, the apparent power is higher than the active one, and to be able to measure this type of product, a better meter is required that can also calculate the power factor.

If you want to control the power of the lamp, you can multiply the power factor by the apparent power (information about the power factors of our LED lamps can be found on our website).

(If you, as an electrician, are to calculate the current in a circuit, use the current (mA) indicated on the package. The current in the circuit will thus in some cases be higher than what is implied by the active power of the lamp.)

## Your dimmable lamp does not work with my dimmer?

As far as we know, there are no LED lamps on the market that are guaranteed to dimmer with all existing dimmers. Therefore, we use the term "dimmer-compatible lamps" and refer to the list of dimmers we have tested. Always check in advance if your selected lamp and dimmer work together. If your dimmer is not on the list, we can not guarantee that the combination will work. We then recommend that you test the combination yourself in advance.

Also note the restrictions stated in the list in the form of the minimum and maximum number of a certain lamp that can be connected to the dimmer. The tests are performed by connecting only one and the same lamp type to the dimmer. If different lamps are connected to the same dimmer, the result may be different.

The list also indicates the minimum and maximum brightness that can be obtained with the selected dimmer, measured on the basis of the lamp's brightness without dimmer. In some cases, settings must be made on the dimmer to achieve the specified result. In some cases, a faint humming sound may occur from the dimmer and / or lamp. This is completely normal and a slight hum from the dimmer often occurs when dimming incandescent lights and halogen as well, as from many other electronic devices. Under certain circumstances, the characteristics of the room can create resonance that amplifies the humming sound.

## How to measure the lifespan of an LED lamp? What happens after the specified lifespan?

The stated lifespan is an average for the lamp type, not a guarantee for individual copies. The lifespan of an LED lamp is stated as the time it takes until either half of the lamps in a group have stopped lighting or until the average luminous flux in a group drops to 70% of the original luminous flux, whichever comes first. This means that individual specimens may cease to function (stop shining completely) or glow less than 70% of the original luminous flux even before the specified service life.

One problem, however, is that there is still no uniform standard for how life is to be tested and therefore it is not possible to compare the stated life between different brands. Typically, tests do not take place during the entire specified service life, but shorter tests are performed in combination with theoretical calculations. The stated average lifespan should therefore in any case be seen as an estimate.

Also note that several factors affect the life of your lamp and can cause it to last shorter than expected. Read more about factors that affect longevity.

## How do I recycle my LED lights?

LED lamps, just like your old light bulbs, should be recycled as electronic scrap / light sources and not thrown in the household rubbish. (LED lights do not contain mercury.)

## I have bought three identical lamps (same article number) but they have a slightly different color of light, why?

Some variation in the color of the light between different specimens is normal. It also occurred among light bulbs, although the spread there was smaller. The smaller the differences accepted in the manufacturing process, the more expensive the LED lamp becomes to produce. The deviations are therefore a quality measure where you sometimes have to compromise to reach a reasonable price level. As a measure of color deviations, there is SDCM where a lower value is better (smaller differences) than a higher one. There are rules that stipulate that LED lamps may not exceed 6 SDCM and all Star Trading lamps meet at least this requirement. Information about SDCM for each lamp can be found on the website.

(SDCM stands for "Standard Deviation of Color Matching" and is sometimes referred to as MacAdam ellipses.)

The color of the light can also change slightly over time while losing brightness. If you put a newly purchased lamp next to an older lamp of the same type, you may therefore experience a slightly larger difference. Read more about longevity.

## I bought two different LED lamps with the same Kelvin number (color temperature) but they have a slightly different color, why?

The Kelvin scale as a measure of color temperature only applies to so-called black body radiators, e.g. light bulbs. LED lamps never really follow the scale exactly, but instead measure and indicate correlated color temperature (CCT), i.e. the color temperature in Kelvin that best corresponds to the color of the light. This means that LED lamps of different types can have the same color temperature in Kelvin but still differ slightly.

The brightness also affects how we experience the color temperature, especially when we look at the light source directly. Two LED lamps of the same make with the same color temperature but with different brightnesses can therefore be perceived as different for the untrained eye.

(Even for one and the same type of lamp, there is a certain level of tolerance between different examples. Read more about color variations and SDCM.)

## Can I use the LED lamp in a sauna?

No. Star Trading LED lamps are designed to be used in normal ambient temperature unless otherwise stated on the packaging / lamp. LED lamps do not withstand high heat and are directly unsuitable in a sauna, oven or the like.

## Can I use the LED lamp in the fridge / freezer?

Cooling is normally no problem and even the freezer usually works unless the temperature is too low, but the lamp must not be exposed to high humidity or frost.

Star Trading LED lamps are designed to be used in normal ambient temperature unless otherwise stated on the packaging / lamp. As a rule of thumb, normal ambient temperature means from -20 ° C to + 40 ° C because LED lights typically work well in cold. In extreme cold, however, the lamp can be damaged. High humidity in the fridge or frost formation in the freezer can also damage the lamp, especially if it is left unprotected, and therefore we can never completely guarantee trouble-free operation in the fridge / freezer.

## Can I use the LED lamp outdoors?

Typically yes, but… It is not the lamp that is designed for outdoor use but the luminaire. It is important in all cases to use a protective luminaire with the correct wiring class (usually IP44). The luminaire must protect the lamp from moisture and mechanical damage.

Star Trading LED lamps are designed to be used in normal ambient temperature unless otherwise stated on the packaging / lamp. As a rule of thumb, normal ambient temperature means from -20 C to +40 C because LED lamps typically work well in cold. In extreme cold or too high heat, the lamp may be damaged. The ignition time of an LED lamp is not affected by cooling in the same way as a fluorescent lamp.

A special case prevails for certain types of loops with open lamp holders and rubber gasket. In these cases, you must first and foremost use a combination of LED lamp and lamp holder where no joints on the lamp end up outside the rubber gasket. The lamp body must therefore be complete with fully cast, smooth glass or plastic. If the lower part of the lamp has grooves, water can leak in. The joint between the lamp body and the base is also not completely tight, but it is important that the rubber gasket on the luminaire protects the bottom. It is also important to use a lamp of the correct shape that closes tightly to the gasket. The lamp shape / type to be used must be stated in the luminaire's instructions. If water has penetrated the lamp, the rubber gasket has not been tight. You have not noticed it before with light bulbs because the light bulbs are vacuum-filled and completely tight, but water has still penetrated through the gasket down to live parts on the luminaire. The luminaire should therefore be replaced. Star Trading loops can be used with those of our lamps that we recommend for the current loop.

## LED lamps should last "very long" but my lamp has broken in a short time, what has happened?

An LED lamp typically lasts for many years, but there are several factors that affect its lifespan and can cause the lamp to break prematurely.

Factors that can affect service life:

• High heat lowers service life. Therefore, you should always ensure good ventilation around the lamp.
• Poor power quality affects all electronic devices. This can be especially noticeable if you live in the countryside or near a substation. A thunderstorm nearby can also cause voltage spikes that damage or destroy the lamp.
• Mechanical damage naturally affects the lamp and it is not certain that it will be noticed immediately. Immediately after dropping a lamp on the ground, it may still be lit, but inside the lamp, a component is still damaged so that it will stop working after a certain period of use.

Other things covered in this FAQ can of course also affect the lifespan:

• Inappropriate combination of dimmer-compatible lamp and dimmer
• Inappropriate combination of low voltage lamp and transformer
• Lamp used outdoors without an approved luminaire and exposed to weather and wind
• Lamp exposed to extreme cold or heat

## Do you provide a guarantee on your lamps?

Yes, Star Trading provides a 3-year warranty on selected lamps whose packaging is labelled with the warranty symbol. Read more about our guarantee here.

However, it is important to remember that the service life indicated on the packaging is a calculated average for a particular lamp type and no guarantee for individual copies. It is expected that the lamp will glow slightly dimmer over time and does not normally constitute a fault. (Read more about how to specify the service life.) The service life of course also depends on how the lamp is used and there are a number of factors that affect the service life that we as manufacturers can never control. These factors are stated in our warranty terms.

The Consumer Purchase Act always applies to you as a consumer, regardless of whether the lamp has a guarantee or not. In the case of LED lamps, this means that if your lamp has broken down within six months of purchase, it is assumed that it is due to manufacturing defects if it is not visible or can otherwise be shown that it has been damaged afterwards. You have the right to complain about the lamp for up to three years, but after the first six months, it is you who must be able to show that the defect existed when you bought the product. If it is a manufacturing defect (original defect), you are entitled to a new lamp if it cannot be repaired.

As a consumer, you should always turn to the retailer where you bought the product and not to Star Trading. We do not handle complaints from private individuals.

## My LED flashes / illuminates dimly when I turn off the power switch?

(If it is a dimmer-compatible lamp connected to a dimmer, see the section on dimmable lamps.)

This is usually due to a weak current still reaching the lamp. This can occur if you use a single-pole switch (which only breaks one of two conductors). A s.k. creeping current can then occur even though the circuit is broken. It can also occur during stair connection when a live conductor lies next to another conductor, whereby a weak induction current occurs in the interrupted conductor. Because LED lamps require so little power, these weak currents are often enough to affect the lamp. LED lamps with low effects can then light dimly while lamps with higher effects can start flashing. The fault is therefore not with the lamp but with the installation. You have not noticed it before because these currents are not strong enough to make a light bulb start to shine, but it has still been seen on your electricity bill, so it may be a good idea to fix the installation.

## What do I do if an LED lamp breaks?

LED lamps do not contain mercury or other dangerous heavy metals and you therefore do not need to take any special measures if an LED lamp breaks in the home. However, keep in mind that it should be recycled and not thrown in the household rubbish.

## Why does my sensor lamp light up all the time?

The sensor lamp depends on daylight to work. Make sure that the lamp's sensors are not blocked by, for example, the luminaire. The sensor lamp is not normally affected by the light from other LED light sources or fluorescent lamps, but a lit light bulb causes the lamp to go out.

## Which transformer should I use for low voltage lamps (12V)?

For best results, we recommend starting from the transformer's specified minimum and maximum power. This often requires a special transformer with a low minimum power because LED lamps typically have a much lower power than halogen lamps. In some cases, the combination can work even if the transformer's minimum load is not reached, but we can then not guarantee the result and damage to the transformer and / or lamp can occur as a result.

## Are the low voltage lamps (12V) made for AC (AC) or DC (DC)? Can I use a 230V DC lamp?

The lamp itself is always marked with the voltage to be used and should not be used in any other way.

Star Trading's mains voltage lamps are typically marked with 230V 50 Hz and should therefore only be supplied with alternating voltage. However, some of our low-voltage lamps are marked with 12V AC / DC and can then be supplied with either alternating voltage or direct voltage.